Apartheid-Laws in south Africa that physically separated different races into different geographic areas.
Balkanization-Process by which a state breaks down through conflicts among its ethnicities.

Balkanized- A small geographic area that could not successfully be organized into one or more stable states because it was inhabited by many ethnicities with complex, long-standing antagonisms toward each other.

Blockbusting-A process by which real estate agents convince white property owners to sell their houses at low prices because of fear that black families will soon move into the neighborhoods.

Centripetal force- An attitude that tends to unify people and enhance support for a state.

Ethnic cleansing-Process in which more powerful ethic group forciblys removes a less powerful one in order to create an ethnically homogeneous region.

Ethnicity-Identity with a group of people that share distinct physical and mental traits as a product of common heredity and cultural traditions.

Multi-ethnic state- State that contains more than one ethnicity.

Multinational state- state that contains two or more ethnic groups with traditions of self-determination that agree to coexist peacefully by recognizing each other as distinct nationalities.

Nationalism- Loyalty and devotion to a particular nationality.

Nationality- Identity with a group of people that share legal attachment and personal allegiance to a particular place as a result of being born there.

Nation-state- A state whose territory corresponds to that occupied by a particular ethnicity that has been transformed into a nationality.

Race- Identity with a group of people descended 
from a common ancestor.

Racism- Belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and copacities and that racial differences produce an inherent superiority of a particular race.

Racist- a person who subscribes to the beliefs of racism.

Self-determination- Concept that ethnicities have the right to govern themselves.

Sovereignty- Ability of a state to govern its territory free from control of its internal affairs by other states. 

Sharecropper- a person who works fields rented from a landowner and pays the rent and repays loans by turning over to the landowner a share of the crops.

Triangle Slave Trade- a practice,primarily during the eighteenth century, in which European ships transported slaves from Africa to Caribbean islands, molasses from the Caribbean to Europe, and trade goods from Europe to Africa.

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